What causes acne ?

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The acne is often family and joins the fatty skin, it begin with the obstruction from the opening from the hair and sebaceous gland. A horn stopper blocks the opening of the hair, it produces a microcomedon then a microkyste. The bacteria which proliferate in the follicule (propionibacterium acnes) release from the substances which cause the ignition of the microkyste and involve a red button and a white head.

One thus recognizes several big factors in the development of the acne:

- The increase in the production of sebum is responsible for a fatty skin, this one is primarily under the dependence of the male hormones (androgens) at the man and the woman. It is thought that the sebaceous gland is too sensitive to the androgens which it can synthesize besides.

The obstruction of the opening of the hair by a horn stopper causes the retentional lesions (microcomedon then open comedones or black spots and closed comedones which form small grains color flesh or microkystes). Several factors influence the obstruction of the follicule pilosebaceous like the composition of the sebum, the rate of the male hormones, the bacteria and of the substances produced by the cells of the skin (cytokines).



There exists an anomaly of the microbial flora (microbes living normally on the skin). The proprionibacterium acnes plays a crucial role and supports occurred of red buttons starting from the comedo, but the acne is not an infection caused by these bacteria.

The ignition causes the papules or red buttons, the pustules or heads white and the bulky painful red buttons or nodules. The ignition is caused by substances manufactured by the bacteria and perhaps also by fatty-acids coming from the sebum.

The family factors play also a part in the development of the acne. The teenagers carrying acne have one of their relative who presents acne in almost a case on two (45%) whereas the parents of those which do not present acne are touched by this affection only approximately once on ten (8%).

The acne is influenced by male hormones but it is seldom caused by a disordered state or a disease of endocrine glands (syndrome of the ovaries polykystic at the woman, congenital deficit in 21 hydroxylase or rarer affection). It is more probably about an over-sensitiveness of sebaceous gland  to the male hormones.

Certain particular forms of acne have specific causes. The acne of the newborn is induced by the passage of the maternal hormones in the blood of the newborn, the induced acne is caused by the catch of drugs (pill, cortisone, antiepileptic…) or of poisons, an exposure to the ultra-violets, the cosmetic acne is caused by the application of creams comedogenes.

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